Friday, December 25, 2009

Kehadiran Pelajar

Assalamualaikum wbt

apa khabar study?

okeeh nak terangkan tentang kehadiran ke kuliah dan praktikal.

  • bagi sesiapa yang tidak datang 3 hari berturut2 akan dapat surat dari gamaah.
Ketua batch bagi konvensional iaitu Muhammad Hanif bin Nawawi akan meminta Dr nesreen utk buat surat itu.

  • kehadiran setiap pelajar mestilah mencapai paling kurang 14 hari dalam sebulan.
  • kehadiran pelajar yg kurang dari 70% ditekan kan untuk tidak boleh ambil peperiksaan, dan ini akan dilaporkan pada Dr nesreen.
NB arahan dari ketu



  1. Amyloidosis
  2. B - Paraplegia
  3. Cold Abscess
  4. Deformity
NB doctor cakap ini penting.

CLICK! =) utk sesiapa yg powerpoint slide lab patho hari rabu lepas.

tahuntiga Mumtaz: best! jom usha hehe

tahuntiga Mumtaz: salam.korg korang bukak website ni jgk. best best
A picture-based website about parasitology.

Meaning, if you don't know what to click next..
Just click on any picture on the site.



Emphysema (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

Emphysema is a form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, more commonly known as COPD, and is typically associated with long term exposure to toxic chemicals, including tobacco smoke. Emphysema is most commonly characterized by a diminished elasticity in the lung's tissue. This diminished elasticity causes the airways to collapse during exhalation and air becomes trapped in the lungs. Common symptoms are shortness of breath during even minor physical exertion, hyperventilating, and an expanded chest.

Emphysema is irreversible and degenerative, but is treatable. As most emphysema is found in smokers, the most important factor in slowing its progression is smoking cessation and the avoidance of all respiratory irritants, including secondhand smoke. Rehabilitation of the patient's pulmonary system can dramatically improve quality of life and lung function. Supplemental oxygen is frequently used to treat emphysema on a controlled flow. These portable oxygen systems have been shown to improve patient mobility and extend life. Other medications include bronchodilators or inhalers to expand airway flow in emphysema patients.

The only known cure for emphysema is a lung transplant, though few patients are healthy enough to undergo such extensive surgery. Life expectancy among patients of emphysema is often only 2-3 years and may be complicated by diagnosis of lung cancer or other irreversible respiratory conditions. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are typically not immediately distinguishable but are usually classified in tandem as varying degrees of COPD.

Games =)

Histology Games

Fling the teacher

Histology art

Grade or No Grade

Walk the plane

pharmacology mnemonics.

Beta blockers : Main contraindication


Block (heart block)
COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
Diabetes mellitus
Electrolyte (hyperkalemia)

Treatment of hypertension


Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs) / Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) / Alpha-2 agonists / Alpha-1 Blockers
Beta blockers
Calcium antagonists
Diuretics / Direct Vasodilators

Side effect of ACEIs

Side effects of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme>>


Taste Changes
Pregnancy problems (teratogenic)
Increase renin
Lower angiotensin II

jom selalu selalu lawat